Stanford University: Rapid open-air fabrication of perovskite solar modules
Perovskite solar technology is at a crossroads, requiring a realistic approach to commercialization and module lifetimes. Prof. Reinhold Dauskardt, Ruth G. and William K. Bowes Professor, Stanford University, demonstrates scalable and reproducible open-air perovskite deposition at the fastest production speeds reported, enabling large-area perovskite photovoltaic (PV) modules that can be manufactured at the lowest cost of any solar technology. Perovskites have the potential to produce energy at a lower cost than silicon PV for utility-scale power generation if the modules can operate for at least 10 years, thereby catapulting perovskites into the zeitgeist of 21st century renewable energy. Our work demonstrates the first industrially relevant attempt to address both scalable and fast open-air photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing. Our rapid spray processing techniques enabled the highest perovskite PV efficiency produced in open-air. Innovations in scribing techniques enabled the first single-source laser process to achieve perovskite module monolithic integration and advanced technoeconomic analysis led to the most comprehensive cost model for perovskite module manufacturing. We make significant steps in reducing perovskite manufacturing costs necessary to potentially compete with incumbent Si-based PV for utility-scale power generation, providing momentum toward wide-scale commercial deployment for perovskites to achieve the lowest levelized cost of energy for any form of PV production.